A divalent element, beryllium is found naturally only combined with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) and chrysoberyl. The free element is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight brittle alkaline earth metal. It is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, notably beryllium copper. Structurally, beryllium's very low density (1.85 times that of water), high melting point (1287 °C), high temperature stability and low coefficient of thermal expansion, make it in many ways an ideal aerospace material, and it has been used in rocket nozzles and is a significant component of planned space telescopes. Because of its relatively high transparency to X-rays and other ionizing radiation types, beryllium also has a number of uses as filters and windows for radiation and particle physics experiments.
Commercial use of beryllium metal presents technical challenges due to the toxicity (especially by inhalation) of beryllium-containing dusts. Beryllium produces a direct corrosive effect to tissue, and can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease called berylliosis in susceptible persons.
Because it is not synthesized in stars, beryllium is a relatively rare element in both the Earth and the universe. The element is not known to be necessary or useful for either plant or animal life.
- 1 Characteristics
- 1.1 Physical properties
- 1.2 Nuclear properties
- 1.3 Isotopes and nucleosynthesis
- 1.4 Chemical properties
- 1.5 Occurrence
- 2 Production
- 2.1 Compounds
- 3 History
- 3.1 Etymology
- 4 Applications
- 4.1 Radiation windows
- 4.2 Mechanical applications
- 4.2.1 Mirrors
- 4.3 Magnetic applications
- 4.4 Nuclear applications
- 4.5 Acoustics
- 4.6 Electronic
- 5 Toxicity
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Beryllium has one of the highest melting points of the light metals. It has exceptional flexural rigidity (Young's modulus 287 GPa). The modulus of elasticity of beryllium is approximately 50% greater than that of steel. The combination of this modulus plus beryllium's relatively low density gives it an unusually fast sound conduction speed at standard conditions (about 12.9 km/s). Other significant properties are the high values for specific heat (1925 J·kg−1·K−1) and thermal conductivity (216 W·m−1·K−1), which make beryllium the metal with the best heat dissipation characteristics per unit weight. In combination with the relatively low coefficient of linear thermal expansion (11.4 × 10−6 K−1), these characteristics ensure that beryllium demonstrates a unique degree of dimensional stability under conditions of thermal loading.
At standard temperature and pressures beryllium resists oxidation when exposed to air (its ability to scratch glass is due to the formation of a thin layer of the hard oxide BeO). It resists corrosion by concentrated nitric acid.
Beryllium has a large scattering cross section for high-energy neutrons, thus effectively slowing the neutrons to the thermal energy range where the cross section is low (about 0.008 barn). The predominant beryllium isotope 9Be also undergoes a (n,2n) neutron reaction to 8Be, that is, beryllium is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs. This nuclear reaction is:
4Be + n → 2(4
2He) + 2n
Beryllium is also transparent to most wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays, making it useful for the output windows of X-ray tubes and other such apparatus.
Also, beryllium is a good source for relatively-small numbers of free neutrons in the laboratory. These are liberated when beryllium nuclei are struck by energetic alpha particles producing this nuclear reaction:
4Be + 4
2He → 12
6C + n
2He is an alpha particle and 12
6C is a carbon-12 nucleus.
Isotopes and nucleosynthesis
Main articles: Isotopes of beryllium and beryllium-10
Plot showing variations in solar activity, including variation in 10Be concentration. Note that the beryllium scale is inverted, so increases on this scale indicate lower 10Be levels
Of beryllium's isotopes, only 9Be is stable and the others are relatively unstable or rare. It is thus a monoisotopic element.
Cosmogenic 10Be is produced in the atmosphere of the Earth by the cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen. Cosmogenic 10Be accumulates at the soil surface, where its relatively long half-life (1.36 million years) permits a long residence time before decaying to boron-10. Thus, 10Be and its daughter products are used to examine natural soil erosion, soil formation and the development of lateritic soils, as well as acting as a proxy for measurement of the variations in solar activity and the age of ice cores.
The production of 10Be is inversely proportional to solar activity, because the increased solar wind during periods of high solar magnetic activity in turn decreases the flux of galactic cosmic rays that reach the Earth.
Nuclear explosions also form 10Be by the reaction of fast neutrons with 13C in the carbon dioxide in air. This is one of the indicators of past activity at nuclear weapon test sites.
The fact that 7Be and 8Be have very short half-lives has had significant cosmological consequences. Elements heavier than beryllium could not have been produced by nuclear fusion in the Big Bang. This is due to the lack of sufficient time during the Big Bang's nucleosynthesis phase to produce carbon by the fusion of 4He nuclei and the very low concentrations of available beryllium-8. The British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle first showed that the energy levels of 8Be and 12C allow carbon production by the so-called triple-alpha process in helium-fueled stars where more nucleosynthesis time is available, thus making carbon-based life possible from the gas and dust ejected by supernovas (see also Big Bang nucleosynthesis).
7Be decays by electron capture, therefore its decay rate is dependent upon its electron configuration – a rare occurrence in nuclear decay.
The shortest-lived known isotope of beryllium is 13Be which decays through neutron emission. It has a half-life of 2.7 × 10−21 second. 6Be is also very short-lived with a half-life of 5.0 × 10−21 second.
The exotic isotopes 11Be and 14Be are known to exhibit a nuclear halo. In short, the nuclei of 11Be and 14Be have, respectively, 1 and 4 neutrons orbiting substantially outside the classical Fermi 'waterdrop' model of the nucleus. Unstable isotopes of beryllium are created in stars, but these do not last long. It is believed that most of the stable beryllium was created when cosmic rays induced fission in heavier elements found in interstellar gas and dust.
Beryllium has the electronic configuration [He] 2s2. Beryllium metal sits above aluminium in the electrochemical series and would be expected to be a reactive metal, however it is passivated by an oxide layer and does not react with air or water even at red heat. Once ignited however beryllium burns brilliantly forming a mixture of beryllium oxide and beryllium nitride. Beryllium dissolves readily in non-oxidizing acids, such as HCl and diluted H2SO4, but not in nitric as this forms the oxide and this behavior is similar to that of aluminium metal. Beryllium, again similarly to aluminium, dissolves in warm alkali to form the beryllate anion, Be(OH)42−, and hydrogen gas.
See also Category: Beryllium minerals The beryllium concentration of the Earth's surface rocks is ca. 4–6 ppm. Beryllium is a constituent of about 100 out of about 4000 known minerals, the most important of which are bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2), beryl (Al2Be3Si6O18), chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4) and phenakite (Be2SiO4). Precious forms of beryl are aquamarine, bixbite and emerald.
Because of its high affinity for oxygen at elevated temperatures, and its ability to reduce water when its oxide film is removed, the extraction of beryllium from its compounds is very difficult. Although electrolysis of the fused mixture of beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride was used to isolate beryllium during the nineteenth century, the metal's high melting point makes this process more energy-consuming than the corresponding processes for the alkali metals. Early in the 20th century, the production of beryllium by the thermal decomposition of beryllium iodide was investigated following the success of a similar process for the production of zirconium, but this process proved to be uneconomical for volume production.
Pure beryllium metal did not become readily available until 1957, even though it had been used as an alloying metal to harden and toughen copper much earlier. Beryllium could be produced by reducing beryllium compounds such as beryllium chloride with metallic potassium or sodium that had been produced by electrolysis.
Currently most beryllium is produced by reducing beryllium fluoride with purified magnesium that had been produced by elecrolysis, itself. The price on the American market for vacuum-cast beryllium ingots was about $338 per pound ($745 per kilogram) in 2001. The chemical equation for the key reaction is as follows:
BeF2 + Mg → MgF2 + Be
The mining and production of beryllium is dominated by one American company. This company smelts its berylllium ore, which contains the mineral bertrandite, and which comes mostly from the company-owned Spor Mountain deposit in the State of Utah. The smelting and other refining of the beryllium is done in a factory just north of Delta, Utah.
In 1998, the worldwide production of beryllium was about 344 tonnes, of which 243 tonnes (71%) came from mines and smelters in the United States of America. By 2008, the world's production of beryllium had decreased somewhat, to about 200 tonnes, of which 176 tonnes (88%) came from the United States.
See also Category: Beryllium compounds In its chemistry, beryllium exclusively exhibits the +2 oxidation state. The only evidence of lower valence of beryllium is in the solubility of the metal in BeCl2. The small atomic radius ensures that the Be2+ ion is polarizing leading to significant covalent character in beryllium's bonding. Beryllium is 4 coordinate in virtually all of its derivatives, e.g. [Be(H2O)4]2+ and tetrahaloberyllates, BeX42−. This characteristic is used in analytical techniques using EDTA as a ligand which preferentially forms octahedral complexes – thus absorbing other cations such as Al3+ which might interfere, for example in the solvent extraction of a complex formed between Be2+ and acetylacetone.
Solutions of beryllium salts, e.g. beryllium sulfate and beryllium nitrate, are acidic because of hydrolysis of the [Be(H2O)4]2+ ion:
[Be(H2O)4]2+ + H2O [Be(H2O)3(OH)]+ + H3O+
Beryllium forms binary compounds with many non-metals. All four anhydrous halides are known. BeF2 has a silica-like structure with corner-shared BeF4 tetrahedra. BeCl2 and BeBr2 have chain structures with edge-shared tetrahedra. They all have linear monomeric gas phase forms.
Beryllium oxide, BeO, is a white, high-melting-point solid, which has the wurtzite structure with a thermal conductivity as high as some metals. BeO is amphoteric. Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2 has low solubility in water and is amphoteric. Salts of beryllium can be produced by treating Be(OH)2 with acid.
Beryllium sulfide, selenide and telluride all have the zincblende structure.
Beryllium nitride, Be3N2 is a high-melting-point compound which is readily hydrolyzed. Beryllium azide, BeN6 is known and beryllium phosphide, Be3P2 has a similar structure to Be3N2.
A number of beryllium borides are known, Be5B, Be4B, Be2B, BeB2, BeB6, BeB12.
Beryllium carbide, Be2C, is a high melting, brick red compound that reacts with water to give methane. No beryllium silicide has been identified.
Basic beryllium nitrate and basic beryllium acetate have similar tetrahedral structures with four beryllium atoms coordinated to a central oxide ion.
Early analyses of emeralds and beryls yielded always similar elements, leading to the fallacious conclusion that both substances are aluminium silicates. René Just Haüy discovered that both crystals show strong similarities, and he asked the chemist Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin for a chemical analysis. Vauquelin was able to separate the aluminium from the beryllium by dissolving the aluminium hydroxide in an additional alkali. Vauquelin named the new element "glucinum" for the sweet taste of some of its compounds.
Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride, as follows:
BeCl2 + 2 K → 2 KCl + Be
The potassium itself had been produced by the electrolysis of its compounds, a newly-discovered process. This chemical method yielded for them only small grains of beryllium from which no ingot of metal could be cast or hammered. The direct electrolysis of a molten mixture of beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride by Paul Lebeau in 1898 yielded the first significant pure samples of beryllium. It took until World War I (1914–18) before significant amounts of beryllium were produced, but its large-scale production was not started until early 1930s. The rising demand for hard beryllium-copper alloys and fluorescent material for fluorescent lights during World War II caused the production of beryllium to soar.
The name beryllium comes (via Latin: Beryllus and French: Béryl) from the Greek βήρυλλος, bērullos, beryl, from Prakrit veruliya (वॆरुलिय), from Pāli veḷuriya (वेलुरिय); veḷiru (भेलिरु) or, viḷar (भिलर्), "to become pale," in reference to the pale semiprecious gemstone beryl. The original source of the word "Beryllium" is the Sanskrit word: वैडूर्य vaidurya-, which is of Dravidian origin and could be derived from the name of the modern city of Belur. For about 160 years, beryllium was also known as glucinum or glucinium (with the accompanying chemical symbol "Gl"), the name coming from the Greek word for sweet: γλυκυς, due to the sweet taste of its salts. The salts are toxic, though, so this is a dangerous practice.
It is estimated that most beryllium is used for military applications, so information is not readily available.
Beryllium target which "converts" a proton beam into a neutron beam
A square beryllium foil mounted in a steel case to be used as a window between a vacuum chamber and an X-ray microscope. Beryllium, due to its low atomic number, is highly transparent to X-rays.
Because of its low atomic number and very low absorption for X-rays, the oldest and still one of the most important applications of beryllium is in radiation windows for X-ray tubes. Extreme demands are placed on purity and cleanliness of Be to avoid artifacts in the X-ray images. Thin beryllium foils are used as radiation windows for X-ray detectors, and the extremely low absorption minimizes the heating effects caused by high intensity, low energy X-rays typical of synchrotron radiation. Vacuum-tight windows and beam-tubes for radiation experiments on synchrotrons are manufactured exclusively from beryllium. In scientific setups for various X-ray emission studies (e.g., energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) the sample holder is usually made of beryllium because its emitted X-rays have much lower energies (~100 eV) than X-rays from most studied materials.
Because of its low atomic number beryllium is almost transparent to energetic particles. Therefore it is used to build the beam pipe around the collision region in collider particle physics experiments. Notably all four main detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb) use a beryllium beam-pipe.
Also many high-energy particle physics collision experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider, the Tevatron, the SLAC and others contain beam pipes made of beryllium. Beryllium's low density allows collision products to reach the surrounding detectors without significant interaction, its stiffness allows a powerful vacuum to be produced within the pipe to minimize interaction with gases, its thermal stability allows it to function correctly at temperatures of only a few degrees above absolute zero, and its diamagnetic nature keeps it from interfering with the complex multipole magnet systems used to steer and focus the particle beams.
Because of its stiffness, light weight and dimensional stability over a wide temperature range, beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Several liquid-fuel rockets use nozzles of pure beryllium.
Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in the production of beryllium copper, which contains up to 2.5% beryllium. Beryllium-copper alloys are used in many applications because of their combination of high electrical and thermal conductivity, high strength and hardness, nonmagnetic properties, along with good corrosion and fatigue resistance. These applications include the making of spot welding electrodes, springs, non-sparking tools and electrical contacts.
The excellent elastic rigidity of beryllium has led to its extensive use in precision instrumentation, e.g. in gyroscope inertial guidance systems and in support structures for optical systems.
Beryllium was also used in Jason pistols which were used to strip paint from the hulls of ships. In this case, beryllium was alloyed to copper and used as a hardening agent.
Beryllium mirrors are of particular interest. Large-area mirrors, frequently with a honeycomb support structure, are used, for example, in meteorological satellites where low weight and long-term dimensional stability are critical. Smaller beryllium mirrors are used in optical guidance systems and in fire-control systems, e.g. in the German-made Leopard 1 and Leopard 2 main battle tanks. In these systems, very rapid movement of the mirror is required which again dictates low mass and high rigidity. Usually the beryllium mirror is coated with hard electroless nickel plating which can be more easily polished to a finer optical finish than beryllium. In some applications, though, the beryllium blank is polished without any coating. This is particularly applicable to cryogenic operation where thermal expansion mismatch can cause the coating to buckle.
The James Webb Space Telescope will have 18 hexagonal beryllium sections for its mirrors. Because JWST will face a temperature of 33 K, the mirror is made of beryllium, capable of handling extreme cold better than glass. Beryllium contracts and deforms less than glass—and remains more uniform—in such temperatures. For the same reason, the optics of the Spitzer Space Telescope are entirely built of beryllium metal.
An earlier major application of beryllium was in brakes for military aircraft because of its hardness, high melting point and exceptional heat dissipation. Environmental considerations have led to substitution by other materials.
Beryllium is non-magnetic. Therefore, tools fabricated out of beryllium are used by naval or military explosive ordnance disposal-teams for work on or near naval mines, since these mines commonly have magnetic fuzes. They are also found in maintenance and construction materials near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines. In addition to their being very difficult to remove once magnetic tools have become misplaced inside of the MRI machine, the expulsion of any magnetic items as missiles during ordinary operation of the MRI machine is extremely dangerous.
In the fields of radio communications and powerful (usually military) radars, hand tools made of beryllium are also used to tune the highly magnetic klystrons, magnetrons, traveling wave tubes, etc., that are used for generating high levels of microwave power in the transmitters .
Thin plates or foils of beryllium are sometimes used in nuclear weapon designs as the very outer layer of the plutonium pits in the primary stages of thermonuclear bombs, placed to surround the fissile material. These layers of beryllium are good "pushers" for the implosion of the plutonium-239, and they are also good neutron reflectors, just as they are in beryllium-moderated nuclear reactors.
Beryllium is also commonly used as a neutron source in laboratory experiments in which relatively-few neutrons are needed (rather than having to use an entire nuclear reactor). In this, a target of beryllium-9 is bombarded with energetic alpha particles from a radio-isotope. In the nuclear reaction that occurs, beryllium nuclei are transmuted into carbon-12, and one free neutron is emitted, traveling in about the same direction than the alpha particle was heading.
Beryllium is also sometimes used as a neutron source in nuclear weapons, a source in which the beryllium is mixed with an alpha-particle emitter, such as polonium-210, radium-226, plutonium-239, or americium-241. The so-called "urchin" neutron initiator used in early atomic bombs used a combination of beryllium and polonium.
Beryllium is also used at the Joint European Torus nuclear-fusion research laboratory, and it will be used in the more advanced ITER to condition the components which face the plasma. Beryllium has also been proposed as a cladding material for nuclear fuel rods, due to its good combination of mechanical, chemical and nuclear properties.
Beryllium fluoride is one of the constituent salts of the eutectic salt mixture FLiBe, which is used as a solvent, moderator and coolant in many hypothetical molten salt reactor designs.
Beryllium's characteristics (low weight and high rigidity) make it useful as a material for high-frequency speaker drivers. Until recently, most beryllium tweeters used an alloy of beryllium and other metals due to beryllium's high cost and difficulty to form. These challenges, coupled with the high performance of beryllium, caused some manufacturers to falsely claim using pure beryllium. Some high-end audio companies manufacture pure beryllium tweeters or speakers using these tweeters. Because beryllium is many times more expensive than titanium, hard to shape due to its brittleness, and toxic if mishandled, these tweeters are limited to high-end home, pro audio, and public address applications.
Beryllium is a p-type dopant in III-V compound semiconductors. It is widely used in materials such as GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs and InAlAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).
Cross-rolled beryllium sheet is an excellent structural support for printed circuit boards in surface-mount technology. In critical electronic applications, beryllium is both a structural support and heat sink. The application also requires a coefficient of thermal expansion that is well matched to the alumina and polyimide-glass substrates. The beryllium-beryllium oxide composite "E-Materials" have been specially designed for these electronic applications and have the additional advantage that the thermal expansion coefficient can be tailored to match diverse substrate materials.
Beryllium oxide is useful for many applications that require the combined properties of an electrical insulator and an excellent heat conductor, with high strength and hardness, and a very high melting point. Beryllium oxide is frequently used as an insulator base plate in high-power transistors in radio frequency transmitters for telecommunications. Beryllium oxide is also being studied for use in increasing the thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets.
Beryllium compounds were used in fluorescent lighting tubes, but this use was discontinued because of the disease berylliosis that it caused in the workers who were making the tubes.
Main article: Beryllium poisoning
The toxicity of beryllium depends upon the duration, intensity and frequency of exposure (features of dose), as well as the form of beryllium and the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, dermal, ingestion). According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), beryllium and beryllium compounds are Category 1 carcinogens; they are carcinogenic to both animals and humans. Chronic berylliosis is a pulmonary and systemic granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium. Acute beryllium disease in the form of chemical pneumonitis was first reported in Europe in 1933 and in the United States in 1943. Cases of chronic berylliosis were first described in 1946 among workers in plants manufacturing fluorescent lamps in Massachusetts. Chronic berylliosis resembles sarcoidosis in many respects, and the differential diagnosis is often difficult. It occasionally killed early workers in nuclear weapons design, such as Herbert Anderson.
Early researchers tasted beryllium and its various compounds for sweetness in order to verify its presence. Modern diagnostic equipment no longer necessitates this highly risky procedure and no attempt should be made to ingest this highly toxic substance. Beryllium and its compounds should be handled with great care and special precautions must be taken when carrying out any activity which could result in the release of beryllium dust (lung cancer is a possible result of prolonged exposure to beryllium laden dust). Although the use of beryllium compounds in fluorescent lighting tubes was discontinued in 1949, potential for exposure to beryllium exists in the nuclear and aerospace industries and in the refining of beryllium metal and melting of beryllium-containing alloys, the manufacturing of electronic devices, and the handling of other beryllium-containing material.
A successful test for beryllium in air and on surfaces has been recently developed and published as an international voluntary consensus standard (ASTM D7202; www.astm.org). The procedure uses dilute ammonium bifluoride for dissolution and fluorescence detection with beryllium bound to sulfonated hydroxybenzoquinoline, allowing detection up to 100 times lower than the recommended limit for beryllium concentration in the workplace. Fluorescence increases with increasing beryllium concentration. The new procedure has been successfully tested on a variety of surfaces and is effective for the dissolution and ultratrace detection of refractory beryllium oxide and siliceous beryllium (ASTM D7458).[5
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Bewise Inc. talaşlı imalat sanayinde en fazla kullanılan ve üç eksende (x,y,z) talaş kaldırabilen freze takımlarından olan Parmak Freze imalatçısıdır. Çok geniş ürün yelpazesine sahip olan firmanın başlıca ürünlerini Karbür Parmak Frezeler, Kalıpçı Frezeleri, Kaba Talaş Frezeleri, Konik Alın Frezeler, Köşe Radyüs Frezeler, İki Ağızlı Kısa ve Uzun Küresel Frezeler, İç Bükey Frezeler vb. şeklinde sıralayabiliriz.
BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.
BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.