Ytterbium ( /ɪˈtɜrbiəm/ i-TUR-bee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. A soft silvery metallic element, ytterbium is a rare earth element of the lanthanide series and is found in the minerals gadolinite, monazite, and xenotime. The element is sometimes associated with yttrium or other related elements and is used in certain steels. Natural ytterbium is a mix of seven stable isotopes. Ytterbium-169, an artificially produced isotope, is used as a gamma ray source.
- 1 Characteristics
- 1.1 Physical properties
- 1.2 Chemical properties
- 1.3 Compounds
- 1.4 Isotopes
- 2 History
- 3 Occurrence
- 4 Production
- 5 Applications
- 5.1 Source of gamma rays
- 5.2 Doping of stainless steel
- 5.3 Yb as dopant of active media
- 5.4 Others
- 6 Precautions
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
 Physical properties
Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and rather ductile element that exhibits a bright silvery luster. A rare earth element, it is easily attacked and dissolved by mineral acids, slowly reacts with water, and oxidizes in air.
Ytterbium has three allotropes which are called alpha, beta and gamma and whose transformation points are at −13 °C and 795 °C. The beta form exists at room temperature and has a face-centered crystal structure while the high-temperature gamma form has a body-centered crystal structure.
Normally, the beta form has a metallic-like electrical conductivity, but becomes a semiconductor when exposed to around 16,000 atm (1.6 GPa). Its electrical resistivity is tenfold larger at about 39,000 atm (3.9 GPa) but then drops dramatically, to around 10% of its room temperature resistivity value, at 40,000 atm (4 GPa).
Contrary to other rare-earth metals, which show antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures, Yb is paramagnetic at any temperatures above 1 K.
It has a melting point of 824°C and a boiling point of 1196°C: this makes it have a narrower liquid range than any other metal.
 Chemical properties
Ytterbium metal tarnishes slowly in air and burns readily at 200 °C to form ytterbium(III) oxide (Yb2O3) or less stable ytterbium monoxide (YbO).
Ytterbium is quite electropositive and reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form ytterbium hydroxide:
2 Yb (s) + 6 H2O (l) → 2 Yb(OH)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)
Ytterbium metal reacts with all the halogens:
2 Yb (s) + 3 F2 (g) → 2 YbF3 (s) [white]2 Yb (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 YbCl3 (s) [white]2 Yb (s) + 3 Br2 (g) → 2 YbBr3 (s) [white]2 Yb (s) + 3 I2 (g) → 2 YbI3 (s) [white]
Ytterbium(III) ion absorbs light in the near infrared spectral range, but not in the visible region, so that ytterbia is white, and ytterbium salts of colorless anions are also colorless. Ytterbium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the colorless Yb(III) ions, which exist as a [Yb(OH2)9]3+ complexes:
2 Yb (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → 2 Yb3+ (aq) + 3 SO2−
4 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)
Ytterbium shows similar chemical behavior to the rest of the lanthanide group. Most of the compounds are found in the oxidation state +3, the salts in that oxidation state are nearly colorless. Like europium, samarium or thulium trihalogenes can be reduced by hydrogen or by addition of the metal reduced to the dihalogens, in this case the for example YbCl2. The oxidation state +2 reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds, for example the Ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO).
- Halides: YbCl2, YbBr3, YbCl3, YbF3
- Oxides: Yb2O3
See also: Category:Ytterbium compounds
Main article: Isotopes of ytterbium
Naturally occurring ytterbium is composed of 7 stable isotopes: Yb-168, Yb-170, Yb-171, Yb-172, Yb-173, Yb-174, and Yb-176, with Yb-174 being the most abundant (31.83% natural abundance). 27 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Yb-169 with a half-life of 32.026 days, Yb-175 with a half-life of 4.185 days, and Yb-166 with a half-life of 56.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 2 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 20 minutes. This element also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being Yb-169m (t½ 46 seconds).
The isotopes of ytterbium range in atomic weight from 147.9674 u (Yb-148) to 180.9562 u (Yb-181). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Yb-174 is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before Yb-174 are element 69 (thulium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element 71 (lutetium) isotopes. Of interest to modern quantum optics, the different ytterbium isotopes follow either Bose-Einstein statistics or Fermi-Dirac statistics, leading to interesting behavior in optical lattices.
Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the year 1878. Marignac found a new component in the earth then known as erbia and named it ytterbia (after Ytterby, the Swedish village where he found the new erbia component). He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element he called ytterbium.
In 1907, the French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia. Neoytterbia would later become known as the element ytterbium, and lutecia would later be known as the element lutetium. Auer von Welsbach independently isolated these elements from ytterbia at about the same time, but called them aldebaranium and cassiopeium.
The chemical and physical properties of ytterbium could not be determined until 1953, when the first nearly pure ytterbium was produced. The price of ytterbium was relatively stable between 1953 and 1998 at about US$ 1,000/kg.
Ytterbium is found with other rare earth elements in several rare minerals. It is most often recovered commercially from monazite sand (0.03% ytterbium). The element is also found in euxenite and xenotime. The main mining areas are China, United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia; and reserves of ytterbium are estimated as about one million tonnes. Ytterbium is normally difficult to separate from other rare earths, but ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques developed in the mid to late 20th century have simplified separation. Known compounds of ytterbium are rare—they haven't been well characterized yet. The abundance of ytterbium in the Earth crust is about 3 mg/kg.
The most important current (2008) sources of ytterbium are the ionic adsorption clays of southern China. The "High Yttrium" concentrate derived from some versions of these comprise about two thirds yttria by weight, and 3-4% ytterbia. As an even-numbered lanthanide, in accordance with the Oddo-Harkins rule, ytterbium is significantly more abundant than its immediate neighbors, thulium and lutetium, which occur in the same concentrate at levels of about 0.5% each. The world production of ytterbium is only about 50 tonnes per year, reflecting the fact that it finds little commercial application.
Recovery of ytterbium from ores involves several processes which are common to most rare-earth elements: 1) processing, 2) separation of Yb from other rare earths, 3) preparation of the metal. If the starting ore is gadolinite, it is digested with hydrochloric or nitric acid which dissolves the rare-earth metals. The solution is treated with sodium oxalate or oxalic acid to precipitate rare earths as oxalates. For euxenite, ore is processed either by fusion with potassium bisulfate or with hydrofluoric acid. Monazite or xenotime are heated either with sulfuric acid or with caustic soda.
Ytterbium is separated from other rare earths either by ion exchange or by reduction with sodium amalgam. In the latter method, a buffered acidic solution of trivalent rare earths is treated with molten sodium mercury alloy, which reduces and dissolves Yb3+. The alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid. The metal is extracted from the solution as oxalate and converted to oxide by heating. The oxide is reduced to metal by heating with lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium in high vacuum. The metal is purified by sublimation and collected over a condensed plate.
 Source of gamma rays
The 169Yb isotope has been used as a radiation source substitute for a portable X-ray machine when electricity was not available. Like X-rays, gamma rays pass through soft tissues of the body, but are blocked by bones and other dense materials. Thus, small 169Yb samples (which emit gamma rays) act like tiny X-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects. Experiment shows that radiographs taken with 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with X-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV.
 Doping of stainless steel
Ytterbium could also be used to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Some ytterbium alloys have been used in dentistry.
 Yb as dopant of active media
Yb is used as dopant in optical materials, usually in the form of ions in active laser media. Several powerful double-clad fiber lasers and disk lasers use Yb3+ ions as dopant at concentration of several atomic percent. Glasses (optical fibers), crystals and ceramics with Yb3+ are used.
Ytterbium is often used as a doping material (as Yb3+) for high power and wavelength-tunable solid state lasers. Yb lasers commonly radiate in the 1.06–1.12 µm band being optically pumped at wavelength 900 nm–1 µm, dependently on the host and application. Small quantum defect makes Yb prospective dopant for efficient lasers and power scaling.
The kinetic of excitations in Yb-doped materials is simple and can be described within concept of effective cross-sections; for the most of Yb-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds, although the application to the Yb-doped composite materials was under discussion.
Usually, low concentrations of Yb are used. At high concentration of excitations, the Yb-doped materials show photodarkening (glass fibers) or ever switch to the broadband emission  (crystals and ceramics) instead of the efficient laser action. This effect may be related with not only overheating, but also conditions of the charge compensation at high concentration of Yb ions.
Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions.
Although ytterbium is fairly stable, it nevertheless should be stored in closed containers to protect it from air and moisture. All compounds of ytterbium should be treated as highly toxic although initial studies appear to indicate that the danger is limited. Ytterbium compounds are, however, known to cause skin and eye irritation and may be teratogenic. Metallic ytterbium dust poses a fire and explosion hazard.
歡迎來到Bewise Inc.的世界，首先恭喜您來到這接受新的資訊讓產業更有競爭力，我們是提供專業刀具製造商，應對客戶高品質的刀具需求，我們可以協助客戶滿足您對產業的不同要求，我們有能力達到非常卓越的客戶需求品質，這是現有相關技術無法比擬的，我們成功的滿足了各行各業的要求，包括：精密HSS DIN切削刀具、協助客戶設計刀具流程、DIN or JIS 鎢鋼切削刀具設計、NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 航太切削刀具,NAS航太刀具設計、超高硬度的切削刀具、醫療配件刀具設計、複合式再研磨機、PCD地板專用企口鑽石組合刀具、粉末造粒成型機、主機版專用頂級電桿、PCBN刀具、PCD刀具、單晶刀具、PCD V-Cut刀、捨棄式圓鋸片組、粉末成型機、航空機械鉸刀、主機版專用頂級電感、’汽車業刀具設計、電子產業鑽石刀具、木工產業鑽石刀具、銑刀與切斷複合再研磨機、銑刀與鑽頭複合再研磨機、銑刀與螺絲攻複合再研磨機等等。我們的產品涵蓋了從民生刀具到工業級的刀具設計；從微細刀具到大型刀具；從小型生產到大型量產；全自動整合；我們的技術可提供您連續生產的效能，我們整體的服務及卓越的技術，恭迎您親自體驗！！
BW Bewise Inc. Willy Chen firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.tool-tool.com skype:willy_chen_bw mobile:0937-618-190 Head &Administration Office No.13,Shiang Shang 2nd St., West Chiu Taichung,Taiwan 40356 http://www.tool-tool.com/ / FAX:+886 4 2471 4839 N.Branch 5F,No.460,Fu Shin North Rd.,Taipei,Taiwan S.Branch No.24,Sec.1,Chia Pu East Rd.,Taipao City,Chiayi Hsien,Taiwan
Welcome to BW tool world! We are an experienced tool maker specialized in cutting tools. We focus on what you need and endeavor to research the best cutter to satisfy users’ demand. Our customers involve wide range of industries, like mold & die, aerospace, electronic, machinery, etc. We are professional expert in cutting field. We would like to solve every problem from you. Please feel free to contact us, its our pleasure to serve for you. BW product including: cutting tool、aerospace tool .HSS DIN Cutting tool、Carbide end mills、Carbide cutting tool、NAS Cutting tool、NAS986 NAS965 NAS897 NAS937orNAS907 Cutting Tools,Carbide end mill、disc milling cutter,Aerospace cutting tool、hss drill’Фрезеры’Carbide drill、High speed steel、Compound Sharpener’Milling cutter、INDUCTORS FOR PCD’CVDD(Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond )’PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) ’Core drill、Tapered end mills、CVD Diamond Tools Inserts’PCD Edge-Beveling Cutter(Golden Finger’PCD V-Cutter’PCD Wood tools’PCD Cutting tools’PCD Circular Saw Blade’PVDD End Mills’diamond tool. INDUCTORS FOR PCD . POWDER FORMING MACHINE ‘Single Crystal Diamond ‘Metric end mills、Miniature end mills、Специальные режущие инструменты ‘Пустотелое сверло ‘Pilot reamer、Fraises’Fresas con mango’ PCD (Polycrystalline diamond) ‘Frese’POWDER FORMING MACHINE’Electronics cutter、Step drill、Metal cutting saw、Double margin drill、Gun barrel、Angle milling cutter、Carbide burrs、Carbide tipped cutter、Chamfering tool、IC card engraving cutter、Side cutter、Staple Cutter’PCD diamond cutter specialized in grooving floors’V-Cut PCD Circular Diamond Tipped Saw Blade with Indexable Insert’ PCD Diamond Tool’ Saw Blade with Indexable Insert’NAS tool、DIN or JIS tool、Special tool、Metal slitting saws、Shell end mills、Side and face milling cutters、Side chip clearance saws、Long end mills’end mill grinder’drill grinder’sharpener、Stub roughing end mills、Dovetail milling cutters、Carbide slot drills、Carbide torus cutters、Angel carbide end mills、Carbide torus cutters、Carbide ball-nosed slot drills、Mould cutter、Tool manufacturer.
Bewise Inc. www.tool-tool.com
（２）Carbide Cutting tools設計
Bewise Inc. talaşlı imalat sanayinde en fazla kullanılan ve üç eksende (x,y,z) talaş kaldırabilen freze takımlarından olan Parmak Freze imalatçısıdır. Çok geniş ürün yelpazesine sahip olan firmanın başlıca ürünlerini Karbür Parmak Frezeler, Kalıpçı Frezeleri, Kaba Talaş Frezeleri, Konik Alın Frezeler, Köşe Radyüs Frezeler, İki Ağızlı Kısa ve Uzun Küresel Frezeler, İç Bükey Frezeler vb. şeklinde sıralayabiliriz.
BW специализируется в научных исследованиях и разработках, и снабжаем самым высокотехнологичным карбидовым материалом для поставки режущих / фрезеровочных инструментов для почвы, воздушного пространства и электронной индустрии. В нашу основную продукцию входит твердый карбид / быстрорежущая сталь, а также двигатели, микроэлектрические дрели, IC картонорезальные машины, фрезы для гравирования, режущие пилы, фрезеры-расширители, фрезеры-расширители с резцом, дрели, резаки форм для шлицевого вала / звездочки роликовой цепи, и специальные нано инструменты. Пожалуйста, посетите сайт www.tool-tool.com для получения большей информации.
BW is specialized in R&D and sourcing the most advanced carbide material with high-tech coating to supply cutting / milling tool for mould & die, aero space and electronic industry. Our main products include solid carbide / HSS end mills, micro electronic drill, IC card cutter, engraving cutter, shell end mills, cutting saw, reamer, thread reamer, leading drill, involute gear cutter for spur wheel, rack and worm milling cutter, thread milling cutter, form cutters for spline shaft/roller chain sprocket, and special tool, with nano grade. Please visit our web www.tool-tool.com for more info.